• An unpleasant emotion caused by the threat of danger, pain or harm.
  • A feeling of anxiety concerning the outcome of something or safety of someone.
  • The likelihood of something unwelcome happening.
  • A mixed feeling of dread and reverence.

In humans and animals, fear is modulated by the process of cognition and learning. This fear is judged as rational or appropriate and irrational or inappropriate. An irrational fear is called a phobia.

Fear is closely related to, but should be distinguished from, the emotion anxiety, which occurs as the result of threats that are perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable.

The fear response serves survival by generating appropriate behavioral responses, so it has been preserved throughout evolution.

Fight or flight response is normal but can become if in extreme cases of fear can be a freeze response or paralysis.

An inborn response for coping with danger and fear are; hyperventilation, heart rate increase, blushing, goose bumps, sweating, increased blood glucose, alertness, sleep disturbance, butterflies. Emotional state will alter also depending on the level of fear.

List of phobias.



(Shown in Notebook 1, pages 39 – 45).